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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2014, Article ID 385297, 8 pages
Research Article

Effect of Proinflammatory Cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β) on Clinical Manifestations in Indian SLE Patients

1National Institute of Immunohaematology, Indian Council of Medical Research, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400012, India
2Department of Rheumatology, King Edward Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400012, India
3National Institute of Immunohaematology, King Edward Memorial Hospital, 13th Floor, NMS Building, Parel, Mumbai 400012, India

Received 24 July 2014; Revised 3 November 2014; Accepted 12 November 2014; Published 7 December 2014

Academic Editor: Vera L. Petricevich

Copyright © 2014 Vinod Umare et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an inflammatory rheumatic disease characterized by production of autoantibodies and organ damage. Elevated levels of cytokines have been reported in SLE patients. In this study we have investigated the effect of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β) on clinical manifestations in 145 Indian SLE patients. One hundred and forty-five healthy controls of the same ethnicity served as a control group. Clinical disease activity was scored according to SLEDAI score. Accordingly, 110 patients had active disease and 35 patients had inactive disease. Mean levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β were found to be significantly higher in SLE patients than healthy controls (). Mean level of IL-6 for patients with active disease ( pg/mL) was significantly higher () than those of inactive disease patients ( pg/mL). Mean level of TNF-α was  pg/mL for patients with active disease while it was  pg/mL for those with inactive disease and this difference was statistically significant (). Similar results were obtained for IL-1β (). Correlation between IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β serum levels and SLEDAI score was observed (, , and , resp.). This study supports the role of these proinflammatory cytokines as inflammatory mediators in active stage of disease.