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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2014, Article ID 582197, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/582197
Research Article

Palmitoleic Acid (N-7) Attenuates the Immunometabolic Disturbances Caused by a High-Fat Diet Independently of PPARα

1Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of São Paulo, Avenida Lineu Prestes 1524, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
2Bioenergetic Laboratory, Extremo Sul Catarinense University, 88806-000 Criciuma, SC, Brazil
3Institute of Physical Activity Sciences and Sports, Cruzeiro do Sul University, 01506-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil

Received 25 April 2014; Revised 17 June 2014; Accepted 17 June 2014; Published 24 July 2014

Academic Editor: Fabio S. Lira

Copyright © 2014 Camila O. Souza et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Palmitoleic acid (PMA) has anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities. Here we tested whether these effects of PMA on glucose homeostasis and liver inflammation, in mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD), are PPAR- dependent. C57BL6 wild-type (WT) and PPAR- -knockout (KO) mice fed with a standard diet (SD) or HFD for 12 weeks were treated after the 10th week with oleic acid (OLA, 300 mg/kg of b.w.) or PMA 300 mg/kg of b.w. Steatosis induced by HFD was associated with liver inflammation only in the KO mice, as shown by the increased hepatic levels of IL1-beta, IL-12, and TNF- ; however, the HFD increased the expression of TLR4 and decreased the expression of IL1-Ra in both genotypes. Treatment with palmitoleate markedly attenuated the insulin resistance induced by the HFD, increased glucose uptake and incorporation into muscle in vitro, reduced the serum levels of AST in WT mice, decreased the hepatic levels of IL1-beta and IL-12 in KO mice, reduced the expression of TLR-4 and increased the expression of IL-1Ra in WT mice, and reduced the phosphorylation of NF 𝜅B (p65) in the livers of KO mice. We conclude that palmitoleate attenuates diet-induced insulin resistance, liver inflammation, and damage through mechanisms that do not depend on PPAR- .