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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2014, Article ID 720987, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/720987
Research Article

Statin Treatment Is Associated with Reduction in Serum Levels of Receptor Activator of NF-κB Ligand and Neutrophil Activation in Patients with Severe Carotid Stenosis

1Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Foundation for Medical Researches, University of Geneva, 64 Avenue de la Roseraie, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa, 6 Viale Benedetto XV, 16132 Genoa, Italy
3First Clinic of Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa School of Medicine, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria San Martino-IST Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Viale Benedetto XV, 16132 Genoa, Italy
4Vascular and Endovascular Surgery Unit, Department of Surgery, San Martino Hospital, 10 Largo Rosanna Benzi, 16132 Genoa, Italy
5Division of Laboratory Medicine, Department of Genetics and Laboratory Medicine, Geneva University Hospitals, 4 Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland

Received 12 September 2013; Accepted 22 December 2013; Published 6 February 2014

Academic Editor: Massimiliano M. Corsi Romanelli

Copyright © 2014 Sébastien Lenglet et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Systemic and intraplaque biomarkers have been widely investigated in clinical cohorts as promising surrogate parameters of cardiovascular vulnerability. In this pilot study, we investigated if systemic and intraplaque levels of calcification biomarkers were affected by treatment with a statin in a cohort of patients with severe carotid stenosis and being asymptomatic for ischemic stroke. Patients on statin therapy had reduced serum osteopontin (OPN), RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio, and MMP-9/pro-MMP-9 activity as compared to untreated patients. Statin-treated patients exhibited increased levels of collagen and reduced neutrophil infiltration in downstream portions of carotid plaques as compared to untreated controls. In upstream plaque portions, OPG content was increased in statin-treated patients as compared to controls. Other histological parameters (such as lipid, macrophage, smooth muscle cell, and MMP-9 content) as well as RANKL, RANK, and OPG mRNA levels did not differ between the two patient groups. Serum RANKL/OPG ratio positively correlated with serum levels of neutrophilic products, intraplaque neutrophil, and MMP-9 content within downstream portions of carotid plaques. In conclusion, statin treatment was associated with improvement in serum RANKL levels and reduced neutrophil activity both systemically and in atherosclerotic plaques.