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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2014, Article ID 740947, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/740947
Research Article

Circulating Th17, Th22, and Th1 Cells Are Elevated in the Guillain-Barré Syndrome and Downregulated by IVIg Treatments

1Department of Neurology, the First Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China
2Department of Neurology, Wuxi People’s Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi 214023, China
3Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, 14186 Stockholm, Sweden
4Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, the First Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China
5Center for Infectious Medicine, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, 14186 Stockholm, Sweden

Received 18 December 2013; Revised 10 April 2014; Accepted 16 April 2014; Published 12 May 2014

Academic Editor: Fumio Tsuji

Copyright © 2014 Shujuan Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is considered a T helper 1 (Th1) cells-mediated acute inflammatory peripheral neuropathy. However, some changes in GBS could not be explained completely by Th1 cells pathogenic role. Recently, Th17 cells have been identified and can mediate tissue inflammation and autoimmune response. Therefore, a study on the role of Th17 and Th22 cells and their cytokines in GBS is necessary for exploring the pathogenesis of GBS. Here, we detected the frequency of Th1, Th17, and Th22 cells by using 4-color flow cytometry and we detected the plasma levels of IL-17 and IL-22 by ELISA in GBS patients, relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients at the acute phase of relapse, viral encephalitis or meningitis patients and healthy controls. Our data showed that the frequency of circulating Th1, Th17, and Th22 cells was significantly increased in GBS patients. The plasma levels of IL-17 and IL-22 in GBS and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis at the acute phase of relapse were also markedly elevated. Enhanced circulating Th22 cells were correlated with GBS severity. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy downregulated Th17, and Th22 cells and the plasma levels of IL-17 and IL-22 in GBS patients. Th17 and Th22 cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of GBS, and intravenous immunoglobulin mediates therapeutic effects by downregulating these cells and their cytokines.