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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 758639, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/758639
Review Article

Role of Cytokines and Toll-Like Receptors in the Immunopathogenesis of Guillain-Barré Syndrome

1Laboratory of Immune Regulation, Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Osaka 5650871, Japan
2Department of Microbiology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Raebareli Road, Lucknow 226014, India

Received 29 June 2014; Accepted 13 August 2014; Published 22 September 2014

Academic Editor: Nina Ivanovska

Copyright © 2014 Kishan Kumar Nyati and Kashi Nath Prasad. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune disease of the peripheral nervous system, mostly triggered by an aberrant immune response to an infectious pathogen. Although several infections have been implicated in the pathogenesis of GBS, not all such infected individuals develop this disease. Moreover, infection with a single agent might also lead to different subtypes of GBS emphasizing the role of host factors in the development of GBS. The host factors regulate a broad range of inflammatory processes that are involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases including GBS. Evidences suggest that systemically and locally released cytokines and their involvement in immune-mediated demyelination and axonal damage of peripheral nerves are important in the pathogenesis of GBS. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) link innate and adaptive immunity through transcription of several proinflammatory cytokines. TLR genes may increase susceptibility to microbial infections; an attenuated immune response towards antigen and downregulation of cytokines occurs due to mutation in the gene. Herein, we discuss the crucial role of host factors such as cytokines and TLRs that activate the immune response and are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease.