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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 767061, 11 pages
Research Article

Potent Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pyrenocine A Isolated from the Marine-Derived Fungus Penicillium paxilli Ma(G)K

1Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, 14801-902 Araraquara, SP, Brazil
2Faculdade de Medicina Ribeirão Preto , Universidade de São Paulo, 14049-900 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
3Instituto de Química de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 780, 13560-970 São Carlos, SP, Brazil
4Departamento de Bioquímica e Microbiologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, 13506-900 Rio Claro, SP, Brazil

Received 15 August 2013; Revised 12 November 2013; Accepted 19 November 2013; Published 19 January 2014

Academic Editor: Chiara De Luca

Copyright © 2014 Thaís Regina Toledo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Very little is known about the immunomodulatory potential of secondary metabolites isolated from marine microorganisms. In the present study, we characterized pyrenocine A, which is produced by the marine-derived fungus Penicillium paxilli Ma(G)K and possesses anti-inflammatory activity. Pyrenocine A was able to suppress, both pretreatment and posttreatment, the LPS-induced activation of macrophages via the inhibition of nitrite production and the synthesis of inflammatory cytokines and PGE2. Pyrenocine A also exhibited anti-inflammatory effects on the expression of receptors directly related to cell migration (Mac-1) as well as costimulatory molecules involved in lymphocyte activation (B7.1). Nitrite production was inhibited by pyrenocine A in macrophages stimulated with CpG but not Poly I:C, suggesting that pyrenocine A acts through the MyD88-dependent intracellular signaling pathway. Moreover, pyrenocine A is also able to inhibit the expression of genes related to NFκB-mediated signal transduction on macrophages stimulated by LPS. Our results indicate that pyrenocine A has promissory anti-inflammatory properties and additional experiments are necessary to confirm this finding in vivo model.