Research Article

Tumor Necrosis Factor Induces Developmental Stage-Dependent Structural Changes in the Immature Small Intestine

Figure 1

Acute TNF blunts ileal villus length at specific stages of development. (a) The ileal segment of the small intestine was harvested from mice at indicated ages and villus length was microscopically measured. Each dot represents one animal’s average villus length which was generated by averaging at least 20 consecutive villi from 3 separate areas per animal. (b) Mice were treated with TNF at indicated ages and villus length was determined (red, TNF; black, control; for each point; , significance is denoted by dashed lines). (c) Small intestinal villus length was measured at P14 following TNF treatment and compared to controls in both C57BL6 and CD1 mice (; for both strains). (d) Representative examples of histology sections at different developmental stages.