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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2014, Article ID 857245, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/857245
Research Article

Intestinal Parasites Coinfection Does Not Alter Plasma Cytokines Profile Elicited in Acute Malaria in Subjects from Endemic Area of Brazil

1Laboratório de Imunoparasitologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, 21040-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
2Laboratório de Simulídeos e Oncocercose, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, 21040-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
3Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas, 01246-900 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
4Agencia de Vigilância em Saúde da Secretaria de Estado da Saúde (AGEVISA), 78900-000 Porto Velho, RO, Brazil
5Centro Interdepartamental de Biologia Experimental e Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal de Rondonia, 78900-000 Porto Velho, RO, Brazil
6Laboratório de Tecnologia Diagnóstica, Bio-Manguinhos, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, 21040-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

Received 13 June 2014; Accepted 1 September 2014; Published 16 September 2014

Academic Editor: Mauricio Martins Rodrigues

Copyright © 2014 Juan Camilo Sánchez-Arcila et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In Brazil, malaria is prevalent in the Amazon region and these regions coincide with high prevalence of intestinal parasites but few studies explore the interaction between malaria and other parasites. Therefore, the present study evaluates changes in cytokine, chemokine, C-reactive protein, and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations in 264 individuals, comparing plasma from infected individuals with concurrent malaria and intestinal parasites to individuals with either malaria infection alone and uninfected. In the studied population 24% of the individuals were infected with Plasmodium and 18% coinfected with intestinal parasites. Protozoan parasites comprised the bulk of the intestinal parasites infections and subjects infected with intestinal parasites were more likely to have malaria. The use of principal component analysis and cluster analysis associated increased levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, and CRP and low levels of IL-17A predominantly with individuals with malaria alone and coinfected individuals. In contrast, low levels of almost all inflammatory mediators were associated predominantly with individuals uninfected while increased levels of IL-17A were associated predominantly with individuals with intestinal parasites only. In conclusion, our data suggest that, in our population, the infection with intestinal parasites (mainly protozoan) does not modify the pattern of cytokine production in individuals infected with P. falciparum and P. vivax.