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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 872464, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/872464
Research Article

Predictive Criteria to Study the Pathogenesis of Malaria-Associated ALI/ARDS in Mice

1Departamento de Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, Edifício Biomédicas IV, Avenida Professor Lineu Prestes, No. 1730, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
2Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Rua Professor Artur Riedel, No. 275, Jardim Eldorado, 09972-270 Diadema, SP, Brazil
3Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Dr. Enéas Carvalho de Aguiar, No. 470, 05403-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
4Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Rua Professor Artur Riedel, No. 275, Jardim Eldorado, 09972-270 Diadema, SP, Brazil
5Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Professor Lineu Prestes, No. 1374, Edifício Biomédicas II Cidade Universitária “Armando Salles Oliveira”, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
6Departamento de Cirurgia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Professor Dr. Orlando Marques de Paiva, No. 87, Cidade Universitária, 05508 270 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
7Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva e Saúde Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Professor Dr. Orlando Marques de Paiva, No. 87, Cidade Universitária, 05508 270 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
8Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Toxicológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Professor Lineu Prestes, No. 580, Bloco 17, Cidade Universitária “Armando Salles Oliveira”, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil

Received 5 June 2014; Accepted 16 July 2014; Published 2 September 2014

Academic Editor: Mauricio Martins Rodrigues

Copyright © 2014 Luana S. Ortolan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Malaria-associated acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) often results in morbidity and mortality. Murine models to study malaria-associated ALI/ARDS have been described; we still lack a method of distinguishing which mice will develop ALI/ARDS before death. This work aimed to characterize malaria-associated ALI/ARDS in a murine model and to demonstrate the first method to predict whether mice are suffering from ALI/ARDS before death. DBA/2 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA developing ALI/ARDS or hyperparasitemia (HP) were compared using histopathology, PaO2 measurement, pulmonary X-ray, breathing capacity, lung permeability, and serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels according to either the day of death or the suggested predictive criteria. We proposed a model to predict malaria-associated ALI/ARDS using breathing patterns (enhanced pause and frequency respiration) and parasitemia as predictive criteria from mice whose cause of death was known to retrospectively diagnose the sacrificed mice as likely to die of ALI/ARDS as early as 7 days after infection. Using this method, we showed increased VEGF levels and increased lung permeability in mice predicted to die of ALI/ARDS. This proposed method for accurately identifying mice suffering from ALI/ARDS before death will enable the use of this model to study the pathogenesis of this disease.