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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2014, Article ID 971417, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/971417
Review Article

Immune Recovery Uveitis: Pathogenesis, Clinical Symptoms, and Treatment

1Department of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok University Children’s Hospital, Waszyngtona Street 17, 15-274 Białystok, Poland
2Department of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, Białystok University Children’s Hospital, Waszyngtona Street 17, 15-274 Białystok, Poland

Received 16 May 2014; Accepted 10 June 2014; Published 24 June 2014

Academic Editor: Francisco J. Ascaso

Copyright © 2014 Beata Urban et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

IRU is the most common form of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-infected patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis who are receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Among patients with CMV in the HAART era, immune recovery may be associated with a greater number of inflammatory complications, including macular edema and epiretinal membrane formation. Given the range of ocular manifestations of HIV, routine ocular examinations and screening for visual loss are recommended in patients with CD4 counts <50 cells/μL. With the increasing longevity of these patients due to the use of HAART, treatment of IRU may become an issue in the future. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature concerning immune recovery uveitis. The definition, epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical findings, complications, diagnosis, and treatment are presented.