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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2014, Article ID 978463, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/978463
Review Article

Obesity, Inflammation, and Lung Injury (OILI): The Good

1Department of Anesthesiology, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA
2Veterans Affairs Western New York Healthcare System, Buffalo, NY 14215, USA

Received 17 February 2014; Accepted 19 March 2014; Published 11 May 2014

Academic Editor: Antonio Macciò

Copyright © 2014 Cheryl Wang. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Obesity becomes pandemic, predisposing these individuals to great risk for lung injury. In this review, we focused on the anti-inflammatories and addressed the following aspects: adipocytokines and obesity, inflammation and other mechanisms, adipocytokines and lung injury in obesity bridged by inflammation, and potential therapeutic targets. To sum up, the majority of evidence supported that adiponectin, omentin, and secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (SFRP5) were reduced significantly in obesity, which is associated with increased inflammation, indicated by increase of TNFα and IL-6, through activation of toll-like receptor (TLR4) and nuclear factor light chain κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways. Administration of these adipocytokines promotes weight loss and reduces inflammation. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG), vaspin, IL-10, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β1), and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) are also regarded as anti-inflammatories. There were controversial reports. Furthermore, there is a huge lack of studies for obesity related lung injury. The effects of adiponectin on lung transplantation, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), and pneumonia were anti-inflammatory and protective in lung injury. Administration of IL-10 agonist reduces mortality of acute lung injury in rabbits with acute necrotizing pancreatitis, possibly through inhibiting proinflammation and strengthening host immunity. Very limited information is available for other adipocytokines.