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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2015, Article ID 158956, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/158956
Research Article

Rapid Exercise-Induced Mobilization of Dendritic Cells Is Potentially Mediated by a Flt3L- and MMP-9-Dependent Process in Multiple Sclerosis

1Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Vaccine & Infectious Disease Institute (VAXINFECTIO), Antwerp University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Antwerp, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium
2REVAL Rehabilitation Research Centre, BIOMED Biomedical Research Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, Hasselt University, 3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium
3Interuniversity Institute for Biostatistics and Statistical Bioinformatics (I-BIOSTAT), Hasselt University, 3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium
4Centre for Health Economic Research and Modelling Infectious Diseases (CHERMID), Vaccine & Infectious Disease Institute (VAXINFECTIO), Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Antwerp, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium
5Flemish Institute of Technological Research (VITO), Unit Environmental Risk and Health, 2400 Mol, Belgium
6Laboratory of Medical Microbiology, Vaccine & Infectious Disease Institute (VAXINFECTIO), Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Antwerp, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium
7Centre for the Evaluation of Vaccination, Vaccine & Infectious Disease Institute (VAXINFECTIO), Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Antwerp, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium

Received 13 August 2015; Revised 24 September 2015; Accepted 29 September 2015

Academic Editor: Marc Pouliot

Copyright © 2015 Nathalie Deckx et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In healthy individuals, one exercise bout induces a substantial increase in the number of circulating leukocytes, while their function is transiently suppressed. The effect of one exercise bout in multiple sclerosis (MS) is less studied. Since recent evidence suggests a role of dendritic cells (DC) in the pathogenesis of MS, we investigated the effect of one combined endurance/resistance exercise bout on the number and function of DC in MS patients and healthy controls. Our results show a rapid increase in the number of DC in response to physical exercise in both MS patients and controls. Further investigation revealed that in particular DC expressing the migratory molecules CCR5 and CD62L were increased upon acute physical activity. This may be mediated by Flt3L- and MMP-9-dependent mobilization of DC, as demonstrated by increased circulating levels of Flt3L and MMP-9 following one exercise bout. Circulating DC display reduced TLR responsiveness after acute exercise, as evidenced by a less pronounced upregulation of activation markers, HLA-DR and CD86, on plasmacytoid DC and conventional DC, respectively. Our results indicate mobilization of DC, which may be less prone to drive inflammatory processes, following exercise. This may present a negative feedback mechanism for exercise-induced tissue damage and inflammation.