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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 176726, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/176726
Research Article

Innate Immunity Components and Cytokines in Gastric Mucosa in Children with Helicobacter pylori Infection

1Chair of Immunology, Collegium Medicum Nicolaus Copernicus University, M. Sklodowskiej-Curie 9, 85-094 Bydgoszcz, Poland
2Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, The Children’s Memorial Health Institute, Aleja Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730 Warsaw, Poland
3Department of Pediatrics, Allergology and Gastroenterology, Collegium Medicum Nicolaus Copernicus University, M. Sklodowskiej-Curie 9, 85-094 Bydgoszcz, Poland
4Department of Pediatric Endoscopy and Gastrointestinal Function Testing, Collegium Medicum Nicolaus Copernicus University, M. Sklodowskiej-Curie 9, 85-094 Bydgoszcz, Poland
5Department of Clinical Pathomorphology, Collegium Medicum Nicolaus Copernicus University, M. Sklodowskiej-Curie 9, 85-094 Bydgoszcz, Poland
6Department of Oncologic Pathology, The Greater Poland Cancer Centre, Garbary 15, 61-866 Poznan, Poland
7Institute of Nursery and Public Health, Rzeszow University, Al. Rejtana 16A, 35-310 Rzeszow, Poland

Received 13 June 2014; Accepted 18 August 2014

Academic Editor: Ishak O. Tekin

Copyright © 2015 Jacek Michalkiewicz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Purpose. To investigate the expression of innate immunity components and cytokines in the gastric mucosa among H. pylori infected and uninfected children. Materials and Methods. Biopsies of the antral gastric mucosa from children with dyspeptic symptoms were evaluated. Gene expressions of innate immunity receptors and cytokines were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. The protein expression of selected molecules was tested by immunohistochemistry. Results. H. pylori infection did not lead to a significant upregulation of MyD88, TLR2, TLR4, CD14, TREM1, and TREM2 mRNA expression but instead resulted in high mRNA expression of IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and CD163. H. pylori cagA(+) infection was associated with higher IL-6 and IL-10 mRNA expression, as compared to cagA(−) strains. H. pylori infected children showed increased IFN-γ and TNF-α protein levels. IFN-γ mRNA expression correlated with both H. pylori density of colonization and lymphocytic infiltration in the gastric mucosa, whereas TNF-α protein expression correlated with bacterial density. Conclusion. H. pylori infection in children was characterized by (a) Th1 expression profile, (b) lack of mRNA overexpression of natural immunity receptors, and (c) strong anti-inflammatory activities in the gastric mucosa, possibly resulting from increased activity of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. This may explain the mildly inflammatory gastric inflammation often observed among H. pylori infected children.