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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 201703, 8 pages
Review Article

Epigenetic Regulation of Inflammatory Cytokines and Associated Genes in Human Malignancies

1Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad 22060, Pakistan
2Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Khyber Medical University, Peshawar 25124, Pakistan
3Institute of Biomedical and Genetic Engineering, Islamabad 54000, Pakistan

Received 12 January 2015; Accepted 18 February 2015

Academic Editor: Marc Pouliot

Copyright © 2015 Rehana Yasmin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Inflammation is a multifaceted defense response of immune system against infection. Chronic inflammation has been implicated as an imminent threat for major human malignancies and is directly linked to various steps involved in tumorigenesis. Inflammatory cytokines, interleukins, interferons, transforming growth factors, chemokines, and adhesion molecules have been associated with chronic inflammation. Numerous cytokines are reported to be aberrantly regulated by different epigenetic mechanisms like DNA methylation and histone modifications in tumor tissues, contributing to pathogenesis of tumor in multiple ways. Some of these cytokines also work as epigenetic regulators of other crucial genes in tumor biology, either directly or indirectly. Such regulations are reported in lung, breast, cervical, gastric, colorectal, pancreatic, prostate, and head and neck cancers. Epigenetics of inflammatory mediators in cancer is currently subject of extensive research. These investigations may help in understanding cancer biology and to develop effective therapeutic strategies. The purpose of this paper is to have a brief view of the aberrant regulation of inflammatory cytokines in human malignancies.