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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2015, Article ID 251204, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/251204
Research Article

Neurotrauma and Inflammation: CNS and PNS Responses

Laboratório de Neurodegeneração e Reparo, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-550 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

Received 23 December 2014; Revised 24 February 2015; Accepted 9 March 2015

Academic Editor: Luc Vallières

Copyright © 2015 Bruno Siqueira Mietto et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Traumatic injury to the central nervous system (CNS) or the peripheral nervous system (PNS) triggers a cascade of events which culminate in a robust inflammatory reaction. The role played by inflammation in the course of degeneration and regeneration is not completely elucidated. While, in peripheral nerves, the inflammatory response is assumed to be essential for normal progression of Wallerian degeneration and regeneration, CNS trauma inflammation is often associated with poor recovery. In this review, we discuss key mechanisms that trigger the inflammatory reaction after nervous system trauma, emphasizing how inflammations in both CNS and PNS differ from each other, in terms of magnitude, cell types involved, and effector molecules. Knowledge of the precise mechanisms that elicit and maintain inflammation after CNS and PNS tissue trauma and their effect on axon degeneration and regeneration is crucial for the identification of possible pharmacological drugs that can positively affect the tissue regenerative capacity.