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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 259074, 15 pages
Review Article

Relationship between Periodontitis and Rheumatoid Arthritis: Review of the Literature

1Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Rua Coronel Nunes de Melo, 1127 Rodolfo Teófilo, 60430-270 Fortaleza, CE, Brazil
2Faculdade de Farmácia, Odontologia e Enfermagem, Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Rua Alexandre Baraúna, 949 Rodolfo Teófilo, 60430-160 Fortaleza, CE, Brazil

Received 27 March 2015; Revised 8 June 2015; Accepted 24 June 2015

Academic Editor: Claudio A. Mastronardi

Copyright © 2015 Vilana Maria Adriano Araújo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Periodontitis (PD) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are immunoinflammatory diseases where leukocyte infiltration and inflammatory mediators induce alveolar bone loss, synovitis, and joint destruction, respectively. Thus, we reviewed the relationship between both diseases considering epidemiological aspects, mechanical periodontal treatment, inflammatory mediators, oral microbiota, and antibodies, using the keywords “periodontitis” and “rheumatoid arthritis” in PubMed database between January 2012 and March 2015, resulting in 162 articles. After critical reading based on titles and abstracts and following the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 26 articles were included. In the articles, women over 40 years old, smokers and nonsmokers, mainly constituted the analyzed groups. Eight studies broached the epidemiological relationship with PD and RA. Four trials demonstrated that the periodontal treatment influenced the severity of RA and periodontal clinical parameters. Nine studies were related with bacteria influence in the pathogenesis of RA and the presence of citrullinated proteins, autoantibodies, or rheumatoid factor in patients with PD and RA. Five studies investigated the presence of mediators of inflammation in PD and RA. In summary, the majority of the articles have confirmed that there is a correlation between PD and RA, since both disorders have characteristics in common and result from an imbalance in the immunoinflammatory response.