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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2015, Article ID 451957, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/451957
Research Article

AP-1-Targeted Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Nanostructured, Self-Assembling S5 Peptide

1Department of Genetic Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, Republic of Korea
2Department of Pharmacy, Sunchon National University, Suncheon 540-742, Republic of Korea
3School of Systems Biological Science, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743, Republic of Korea
4Department of Veterinary Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Biosafety Research Institute, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756, Republic of Korea

Received 21 March 2015; Revised 27 April 2015; Accepted 27 April 2015

Academic Editor: Dennis D. Taub

Copyright © 2015 Woo Seok Yang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Peptide-based therapeutics have received increasing attention in medical research. However, the local delivery of such therapeutics poses unique challenges. Self-assembling peptides that use decorated nanofibers are one approach by which these therapeutics may be delivered. We previously found that the self-assembling K5 peptide affects the anti-inflammatory response. The aim of the present study was to investigate another self-assembling peptide, S5. Unlike the K5 peptide which has a positive charge, the S5 peptide has a free hydroxyl (-OH) group. We first examined whether the S5 peptide regulates the inflammatory response in primary cells and found that the S5 peptide reduced the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) treated bone marrow-derived macrophages. Moreover, the S5 peptide significantly downregulated cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2, TNF-α, and interleukin- (IL-) 1β expression by blocking the nuclear translocation of c-Jun. Consistent with this finding, the S5 peptide diminished the activation of inflammatory signaling enzymes related to p38. The S5 peptide also inhibited the formation of the p38/c-Jun signaling complex in RAW264.7 cells. Similarly, p38 and MKK3/6 were inhibited by the S5 peptide in LPS-activated peritoneal macrophages. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the S5 peptide could exert anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the c-Jun/p38 signaling pathway.