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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2015, Article ID 564042, 10 pages
Research Article

The X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein Inhibitor Embelin Suppresses Inflammation and Bone Erosion in Collagen Antibody Induced Arthritis Mice

1Discipline of Anatomy and Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
2School of Dentistry, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
3Medical Device Research Institute, School of Computer Science, Engineering and Mathematics, Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA 5042, Australia
4Department of Rheumatology, Flinders Medical Centre and Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA 5042, Australia
5Rheumatology Research Unit, Repatriation Hospital, Daw Park, SA 5041, Australia

Received 3 July 2014; Revised 27 September 2014; Accepted 28 September 2014

Academic Editor: György Nagy

Copyright © 2015 Anak A. S. S. K. Dharmapatni et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective. To investigate the effect of Embelin, an inhibitor of X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (XIAP), on inflammation and bone erosion in a collagen antibody induced arthritis (CAIA) in mice. Methods. Four groups of mice ( per group) were allocated: CAIA untreated mice, CAIA treated with Prednisolone (10 mg/kg/day), CAIA treated with low dose Embelin (30 mg/kg/day), and CAIA treated with high dose Embelin (50 mg/kg/day). Joint inflammation was evaluated using clinical paw score and histological assessments. Bone erosion was assessed using micro-CT, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, and serum carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTX-1) ELISA. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect XIAP protein. TUNEL was performed to identify apoptotic cells. Results. Low dose, but not high dose Embelin, suppressed inflammation as reflected by lower paw scores () and lower histological scores for inflammation. Low dose Embelin reduced serum CTX-1 () and demonstrated lower histological score and TRAP counting, and slightly higher bone volume as compared to CAIA untreated mice. XIAP expression was not reduced but TUNEL positive cells were more abundant in Embelin treated CAIA mice. Conclusion. Low dose Embelin suppressed inflammation and serum CTX-1 in CAIA mice, indicating a potential use for Embelin to treat pathological bone loss.