Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 620919, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/620919
Research Article

Circulating Irisin Levels Are Not Regulated by Nutritional Status, Obesity, or Leptin Levels in Rodents

1Department of Physiology, CIMUS, University of Santiago de Compostela, Sanitary Research Institute of Santiago de Compostela (IDIS), 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
2CIBER Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERobn), 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
3Endocrine Physiopathology Group, Sanitary Research Institute of Santiago de Compostela (IDIS), University Hospital Complex of Santiago (CHUS/SERGAS), 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain

Received 20 May 2015; Revised 19 August 2015; Accepted 6 September 2015

Academic Editor: Aaron L. Sverdlov

Copyright © 2015 Mar Quiñones et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. S. Hotamisligil, “Inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress in obesity and diabetes,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 32, supplement 7, pp. S52–S54, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. A. Timmons, K. Baar, P. K. Davidsen, and P. J. Atherton, “Is irisin a human exercise gene?” Nature, vol. 488, no. 7413, pp. E9–E11, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. B. K. Pedersen and M. A. Febbraio, “Muscle as an endocrine organ: focus on muscle-derived interleukin-6,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 88, no. 4, pp. 1379–1406, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. P. Keller, N. B. J. Vollaard, T. Gustafsson et al., “A transcriptional map of the impact of endurance exercise training on skeletal muscle phenotype,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 46–59, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. K. Baar, A. R. Wende, T. E. Jones et al., “Adaptations of skeletal muscle to exercise: rapid increase in the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 16, no. 14, pp. 1879–1886, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. Lin, H. Wu, P. T. Tarr et al., “Transcriptional co-activator PGC-1α drives the formation of slow-twitch muscle fibres,” Nature, vol. 418, no. 6899, pp. 797–801, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. Puigserver, Z. Wu, C. W. Park, R. Graves, M. Wright, and B. M. Spiegelman, “A cold-inducible coactivator of nuclear receptors linked to adaptive thermogenesis,” Cell, vol. 92, no. 6, pp. 829–839, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. Boström, J. Wu, M. P. Jedrychowski et al., “A PGC1-alpha-dependent myokine that drives brown-fat-like development of white fat and thermogenesis,” Nature, vol. 481, no. 7382, pp. 463–468, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. Teufel, N. Malik, M. Mukhopadhyay, and H. Westphal, “Frcp1 and Frcp2, two novel fibronectin type III repeat containing genes,” Gene, vol. 297, no. 1-2, pp. 79–83, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. Ferrer-Martínez, P. Ruiz-Lozano, and K. R. Chien, “Mouse PeP: a novel peroxisomal protein linked to myoblast differentiation and development,” Developmental Dynamics, vol. 224, no. 2, pp. 154–167, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. P. Lee, J. D. Linderman, S. Smith et al., “Irisin and FGF21 are cold-induced endocrine activators of brown fat function in humans,” Cell Metabolism, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 302–309, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. Y. Zhang, R. Li, Y. Meng et al., “Irisin stimulates browning of white adipocytes through mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 MAP kinase and ERK MAP kinase signaling,” Diabetes, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 514–525, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. Raschke, M. Elsen, H. Gassenhuber et al., “Evidence against a beneficial effect of irisin in humans,” PloS ONE, vol. 8, no. 9, Article ID e73680, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. T. Hofmann, U. Elbelt, A. Ahnis, P. Kobelt, M. Rose, and A. Stengel, “Irisin levels are not affected by physical activity in patients with anorexia nervosa,” Frontiers in Endocrinology, vol. 4, article 202, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. Hecksteden, M. Wegmann, A. Steffen et al., “Irisin and exercise training in humans—results from a randomized controlled training trial,” BMC Medicine, vol. 11, article 235, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. G. Novelle, C. Contreras, A. Romero-Picó, M. López, and C. Diéguez, “Irisin, two years later,” International Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 2013, Article ID 746281, 8 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. Pekkala, P. K. Wiklund, J. J. Hulmi et al., “Are skeletal muscle FNDC5 gene expression and irisin release regulated by exercise and related to health?” Journal of Physiology, vol. 591, no. 21, pp. 5393–5400, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. D. Wrann, J. P. White, J. Salogiannnis et al., “Exercise induces hippocampal BDNF through a PGC-1alpha/FNDC5 pathway,” Cell Metabolism, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 649–659, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. Stengel, T. Hofmann, M. Goebel-Stengel, U. Elbelt, P. Kobelt, and B. F. Klapp, “Circulating levels of irisin in patients with anorexia nervosa and different stages of obesity—correlation with body mass index,” Peptides, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 125–130, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. B. Crujeiras, M. Pardo, A. Roca-Rivada et al., “Longitudinal variation of circulating irisin after an energy restriction-induced weight loss and following weight regain in obese men and women,” American Journal of Human Biology, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 198–207, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. M. Moreno-Navarrete, F. Ortega, M. Serrano et al., “Irisin is expressed and produced by human muscle and adipose tissue in association with obesity and insulin resistance,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. E769–E778, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. F. Sanchis-Gomar, R. Alis, H. Pareja-Galeano et al., “Circulating irisin levels are not correlated with BMI, age, and other biological parameters in obese and diabetic patients,” Endocrine, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 674–677, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. Y. Huh, G. Panagiotou, V. Mougios et al., “FNDC5 and irisin in humans: I. Predictors of circulating concentrations in serum and plasma and II. mRNA expression and circulating concentrations in response to weight loss and exercise,” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 61, no. 12, pp. 1725–1738, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. P. Lopez-Legarrea, R. de la Iglesia, A. B. Crujeiras et al., “Higher baseline irisin concentrations are associated with greater reductions in glycemia and insulinemia after weight loss in obese subjects,” Nutrition & Diabetes, vol. 4, no. 2, article e110, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. M. D. Roberts, D. S. Bayless, J. M. Company et al., “Elevated skeletal muscle irisin precursor FNDC5 mRNA in obese OLETF rats,” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 62, no. 8, pp. 1052–1056, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. Roca-Rivada, C. Castelao, L. L. Senin et al., “FNDC5/irisin is not only a myokine but also an adipokine,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 4, Article ID e60563, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. C. R. González, J. E. Caminos, M. J. Vázquez et al., “Regulation of visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor by nutritional status, metformin, gender and pituitary factors in rat white adipose tissue,” The Journal of Physiology, vol. 587, no. 14, pp. 3741–3750, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. Imbernon, L. Whyte, A. Diaz-Arteaga et al., “Regulation of GPR55 in rat white adipose tissue and serum LPI by nutritional status, gestation, gender and pituitary factors,” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, vol. 383, no. 1-2, pp. 159–169, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. G. Légràdi, C. H. Emerson, R. S. Ahima, J. S. Flier, and R. M. Lechan, “Leptin prevents fasting-induced suppression of prothyrotropin-releasing hormone messenger ribonucleic acid in neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus,” Endocrinology, vol. 138, no. 6, pp. 2569–2576, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. Pardo, A. Roca-Rivada, O. Al-Massadi, L. M. Seoane, J. P. Camiña, and F. F. Casanueva, “Peripheral leptin and ghrelin receptors are regulated in a tissue-specific manner in activity-based anorexia,” Peptides, vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 1912–1919, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. K. M. Habegger, O. Al-Massadi, K. M. Heppner et al., “Duodenal nutrient exclusion improves metabolic syndrome and stimulates villus hyperplasia,” Gut, vol. 63, no. 8, pp. 1238–1246, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. B. Crujeiras, M. A. Zulet, P. Lopez-Legarrea et al., “Association between circulating irisin levels and the promotion of insulin resistance during the weight maintenance period after a dietary weight-lowering program in obese patients,” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 520–531, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. R. de la Iglesia, P. Lopez-Legarrea, A. B. Crujeiras et al., “Plasma irisin depletion under energy restriction is associated with improvements in lipid profile in metabolic syndrome patients,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 306–311, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. T. Kuloglu, S. Aydin, M. N. Eren et al., “Irisin: a potentially candidate marker for myocardial infarction,” Peptides, vol. 55, pp. 85–91, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. B. Porteiro, A. Díaz-Ruíz, G. Martínez et al., “Ghrelin requires p53 to stimulate lipid storage in fat and liver,” Endocrinology, vol. 154, no. 10, pp. 3671–3679, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. O. Al-Massadi, A. B. Crujeiras, R. C. González et al., “Age, sex, and lactating status regulate ghrelin secretion and GOAT mRNA levels from isolated rat stomach,” The American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 299, no. 3, pp. E341–E350, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. L. L. Senin, O. Al-Massadi, C. Folgueira et al., “The gastric CB1 receptor modulates ghrelin production through the mTOR pathway to regulate food intake,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 11, Article ID e80339, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. V. Wallenius, K. Wallenius, B. Ahrén et al., “Interleukin-6-deficient mice develop mature-onset obesity,” Nature Medicine, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 75–79, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. D. Browning, J. Baxter, S. Satapati, and S. C. Burgess, “The effect of short-term fasting on liver and skeletal muscle lipid, glucose, and energy metabolism in healthy women and men,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 577–586, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. L. M. Seoane, O. Al-Massadi, J. E. Caminos, S. A. Tovar, C. Dieguez, and F. F. Casanueva, “Sensory stimuli directly acting at the central nervous system regulate gastric ghrelin secretion. An ex vivo organ culture study,” Endocrinology, vol. 148, no. 8, pp. 3998–4006, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. G.-F. Luo, T.-Y. Yu, X.-H. Wen, Y. Li, and G.-S. Yang, “Alteration of mitochondrial oxidative capacity during porcine preadipocyte differentiation and in response to leptin,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 307, no. 1-2, pp. 83–91, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. Yasari, D. Wang, D. Prud'homme, M. Jankowski, J. Gutkowska, and J.-M. Lavoie, “Exercise training decreases plasma leptin levels and the expression of hepatic leptin receptor-a, -b, and, -e in rats,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 324, no. 1-2, pp. 13–20, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. K. H. Park, L. Zaichenko, M. Brinkoetter et al., “Circulating irisin in relation to insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 98, no. 12, pp. 4899–4907, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J.-J. Liu, M. D. S. Wong, W. C. Toy et al., “Lower circulating irisin is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Journal of Diabetes and its Complications, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 365–369, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. Y.-K. Choi, M.-K. Kim, K. H. Bae et al., “Serum irisin levels in new-onset type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 96–101, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. N. Sharma, C. M. Castorena, and G. D. Cartee, “Greater insulin sensitivity in calorie restricted rats occurs with unaltered circulating levels of several important myokines and cytokines,” Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 9, article 90, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. A. Rodríguez, S. Becerril, L. Méndez-Giménez et al., “Leptin administration activates irisin-induced myogenesis via nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms, but reduces its effect on subcutaneous fat browning in mice,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 39, pp. 397–407, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus