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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2015, Article ID 623427, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/623427
Review Article

Relationship between Gingival Inflammation and Pregnancy

1Department of Stomatology, The Affiliated Shenzhen Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital of the South Medical University, Shenzhen 518048, China
2School of Dentistry, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070, China

Received 5 June 2014; Accepted 28 August 2014

Academic Editor: Gustavo Duarte Pimentel

Copyright © 2015 Min Wu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

An increase in the prevalence and severity of gingival inflammation during pregnancy has been reported since the 1960s. Though the etiology is not fully known, it is believed that increasing plasma sex steroid hormone levels during pregnancy have a dramatic effect on the periodontium. Current works of research have shown that estrogen and progesterone increasing during pregnancy are supposed to be responsible for gingivitis progression. This review is focused not only on epidemiological studies, but also on the effects of progesterone and estrogen on the change of subgingival microbiota and immunologic physiological mediators in periodontal tissue (gingiva and periodontal ligament), which provides current information about the effects of pregnancy on gingival inflammation.