Figure 5: Effects of staurosporine, calphostin C, or H-89 pretreatment in the periphery on ES-induced PWT reduction. (a–c) In rats with L5 DR, an i.pl. injection of staurosporine (70 μM), calphostin C (12 μM), or H-89 (10 μM) administered immediately prior to the ES of L5 SN (L5 SN-ES) into the midpoint of the L4 plantar dermatome resulted in a significant increase in ES-induced decreased PWTs compared with vehicle-treated controls. The abbreviations B and D are defined in Figure 2. The values in parentheses indicate the number of animals used. The error bars represent the SEM. versus vehicle group. # versus baseline.