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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2015, Article ID 841097, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/841097
Review Article

Epigenetic Regulations of Inflammatory Cyclooxygenase-Derived Prostanoids: Molecular Basis and Pathophysiological Consequences

Faculty of Dental Medicine, University of Monastir, 5000 Monastir, Tunisia

Received 12 January 2015; Accepted 29 March 2015

Academic Editor: Marc Pouliot

Copyright © 2015 Hedi Harizi. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The potential relevance of prostanoid signaling in immunity and immunological disorders, or disease susceptibility and individual variations in drug responses, is an important area for investigation. The deregulation of Cyclooxygenase- (COX-) derived prostanoids has been reported in several immunoinflammatory disorders such as asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. In addition to the environmental factors and the genetic background to diseases, epigenetic mechanisms involved in the fine regulation of prostanoid biosynthesis and/or receptor signaling appeared to be an additional level of complexity in the understanding of prostanoid biology and crucial in controlling the different components of the COX pathways. Epigenetic alterations targeting inflammatory components of prostanoid biosynthesis and signaling pathways may be important in the process of neoplasia, depending on the tissue microenvironment and target genes. Here, we focused on the epigenetic modifications of inflammatory prostanoids in physiological immune response and immunological disorders. We described how major prostanoids and their receptors can be functionally regulated epigenetically and consequently the impact of these processes in the pathogenesis inflammatory diseases and the development of therapeutic approaches that may have important clinical applications.