The Dietary Flavonoid Kaempferol Mediates Anti-Inflammatory Responses via the Src, Syk, IRAK1, and IRAK4 Molecular Targets
The effects of KF on AP-1 activation signaling. (a, b, and c) RAW264.7 cells (5 × 106 cells/mL) were incubated with LPS (1 μg/mL) in the presence or absence of KF for the indicated times. After preparing the whole lysates, the levels of total or phosphorylated ERK, JNK, p38, MKK3, MKK4, IRAK1, IRAK4, and TAK1 were identified using immunoblot analyses. (d) The inhibitory effects of KF on IRAK1 and IRAK4 activity were determined using a conventional kinase assay with purified IRAK1 and IRAK4. (e) The inhibitory effects of SB or SP on the production of NO or PGE2 were examined using the Griess assay and EIA. Relative intensity was calculated using total levels by the DNR Bio-Imaging System. All of the data are expressed as the mean ± SD of experiments that were performed with six or three (a, b, c, and d) samples. and compared to the control group.
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