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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2015, Article ID 926369, 10 pages
Research Article

The Effect of Cyclooxygenase Inhibition on Tendon-Bone Healing in an In Vitro Coculture Model

Department of Trauma, Hand and Reconstructive Surgery, University Hospital Marburg, 35043 Marburg, Germany

Received 24 December 2014; Accepted 16 April 2015

Academic Editor: Giuseppe Valacchi

Copyright © 2015 Tim Schwarting et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The effects of cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition following the reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament remain unclear. We examined the effects of selective COX-2 and nonselective COX inhibition on bone-tendon integration in an in vitro model. We measured the dose-dependent effects of ibuprofen and parecoxib on the viability of lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated and unstimulated mouse MC3T3-E1 and 3T3 cells, the influence on gene expression at the osteoblast, interface, and fibroblast regions measured by quantitative PCR, and cellular outgrowth assessed on histological sections. Ibuprofen led to a dose-dependent suppression of MC3T3 cell viability, while parecoxib reduced the viability of 3T3 cultures. Exposure to ibuprofen significantly suppressed expression of Alpl (P < 0.01), Bglap (P < 0.001), and Runx2 (P < 0.01), and although parecoxib reduced expression of Alpl (P < 0.001), Fmod (P < 0.001), and Runx2 (P < 0.01), the expression of Bglap was increased (P < 0.01). Microscopic analysis showed a reduction in cellular outgrowth in LPS-stimulated cultures following exposure to ibuprofen and parecoxib. Nonselective COX inhibition and the specific inhibition of COX-2 led to region-specific reductions in markers of calcification and cell viability. We suggest further in vitro and in vivo studies examining the biologic and biomechanical effects of selective and nonselective COX inhibition.