Figure 1: Effect of a 24 h fast on the TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 response to 10 or 100 acute inescapable tail shocks in blood plasma. Fed (FED □) or fasted (FASTED ■) rats were exposed to 0 (control condition), 10, or 100 acute, inescapable tail shocks (IS) and immediately sacrificed and trunk blood was collected. Shown is the mean (+SEM) plasma concentration of (a) tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), (b) interleukin- (IL-) 1 beta (IL-1β), (c) IL-6, and (d) IL-10. , (0IS versus 10 or 100IS).