Figure 4: Effect of a 24 h fast on the glucose, NEFA, insulin, leptin, and corticosterone response to 10 or 100 acute inescapable tail shocks in blood plasma. Fed (FED □) or fasted (FASTED ■) rats were exposed to 0 (control condition), 10, or 100 acute, inescapable tail shocks (IS) and immediately sacrificed and trunk blood was collected. Shown is the mean (+SEM) plasma concentration of (a) glucose, (b) nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), (c) insulin, (d) leptin, and (e) corticosterone. , (0IS versus 10 or 100IS), (main effect of FED versus FASTED), , , and (FED versus FASTED within stress condition).