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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2016, Article ID 1851420, 18 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1851420
Review Article

Role of Mitochondria-Associated Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane in Inflammation-Mediated Metabolic Diseases

1Department of Biomedical Science, Graduate School, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea
2BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea
3Leading-edge Research Center for Drug Discovery and Development for Diabetes and Metabolic Disease, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea
4Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea

Received 22 September 2016; Accepted 17 November 2016

Academic Editor: Helen C. Steel

Copyright © 2016 Themis Thoudam et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Inflammation is considered to be one of the most critical factors involved in the development of complex metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. A few decades ago, the discovery of mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane (MAM) was followed by the identification of its roles in regulating cellular homeostatic processes, ranging from cellular bioenergetics to apoptosis. MAM provides an excellent platform for numerous signaling pathways; among them, inflammatory signaling pathways associated with MAM play a critical role in cellular defense during pathogenic infections and metabolic disorders. However, induction of MAM causes deleterious effects by amplifying mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation through increased calcium transfer from the ER to mitochondria, thereby causing mitochondrial damage and release of mitochondrial components into the cytosol as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). These mitochondrial DAMPs rapidly activate MAM-resident inflammasome components and other inflammatory factors, which promote inflammasome complex formation and release of proinflammatory cytokines in pathological conditions. Long-term stimulation of the inflammasome instigates chronic inflammation, leading to the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of MAM and its association with inflammation-mediated metabolic diseases.