Research Article

Kinin Peptides Enhance Inflammatory and Oxidative Responses Promoting Apoptosis in a Parkinson’s Disease Cellular Model

Figure 1

The effect of kinin peptides on apoptotic processes in the PD cellular model. Visualization of the SK-N-SH cells differentiated for 3 days with 5 μM RA with following MPP+ treatment for 24 hours. The destroyed neurites are indicated with arrows (a). RA-differentiated cells after 24 h incubation with 1 μM BK or 1 μM DAKD were stimulated (or not) with 2.5 mM MPP+ for one day. Figures illustrate the percentage cell viability assayed with AlamarBlue test (b) or caspase 3/7 activity analyzed with chemiluminescent assay (c, d) as compared to untreated samples, assumed to show values equal to 100% (dashed line), as described in Materials and Methods. At least three experiments were performed in triplicate. versus untreated cells; versus MPP+-stimulated cells; versus cells treated with kinin peptides and MPP+.