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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2016, Article ID 5168363, 12 pages
Research Article

Frequency of TNFA, INFG, and IL10 Gene Polymorphisms and Their Association with Malaria Vivax and Genomic Ancestry

1Department of Dermatologic, Infectious, and Parasitic Diseases, College of Medicine of São José do Rio Preto, São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil
2University Center of Rio Preto, UNIRP, São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil
3Laboratory of Tropical Diseases–Prof. Luiz Jacintho da Silva, Department of Genetics, Evolution and Bioagents, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil
4Department of Biology, São Paulo State University, São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil
5Laboratory of Human and Medical Genetics, Federal University of Pará, Belém, PA, Brazil
6Laboratory of Basic Research in Malaria, Section of Parasitology, Evandro Chagas Institute, Belém, PA, Brazil

Received 29 February 2016; Revised 14 July 2016; Accepted 27 September 2016

Academic Editor: Luca Cantarini

Copyright © 2016 Adriana Antônia da Cruz Furini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Polymorphisms in cytokine genes can alter the production of these proteins and consequently affect the immune response. The trihybrid heterogeneity of the Brazilian population is characterized as a condition for the use of ancestry informative markers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of -1031T>C, -308G>A and -238G>A TNFA, +874 A>T IFNG and -819C>T, and -592C>A IL10 gene polymorphisms and their association with malaria vivax and genomic ancestry. Samples from 90 vivax malaria-infected individuals and 51 noninfected individuals from northern Brazil were evaluated. Genotyping was carried out by using ASO-PCR or PCR/RFLP. The genomic ancestry of the individuals was classified using 48 insertion/deletion polymorphism biallelic markers. There were no differences in the proportions of African, European, and Native American ancestry between men and women. No significant association was observed for the allele and genotype frequencies of the 6 SNPs between malaria-infected and noninfected individuals. However, there was a trend toward decreasing the frequency of individuals carrying the TNF-308A allele with the increasing proportion of European ancestry. No ethnic-specific SNPs were identified, and there was no allelic or genotype association with susceptibility or resistance to vivax malaria. Understanding the genomic mechanisms by which ancestry influences this association is critical and requires further study.