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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2016, Article ID 5797930, 8 pages
Clinical Study

Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and Malondialdehyde as Potential Predictors of Vascular Risk Complications in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Cross-Sectional Case Control Study in Saudi Arabia

1Medical Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt
2Laboratory Medicine Department, College of Applied Medical Science, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah 21955, Saudi Arabia
3Clinical Pathology Department, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Cairo 11796, Egypt
4Clinical Pathology Department, Al Azhar University, Cairo 11651, Egypt
5Clinical Chemistry Department, Al Noor Specialist Hospital, Makkah 21955, Saudi Arabia
6Cancer Epidemiology and Biostatistics Department, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Cairo 11796, Egypt
7Kuwait Cancer Registry, 70653 Kuwait, Kuwait

Received 28 December 2015; Revised 10 April 2016; Accepted 20 April 2016

Academic Editor: Dianne Cooper

Copyright © 2016 Heba Kamal Morsi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Malondialdehyde (MDA) has been implicated in the development of many acute inflammatory, autoimmune diseases as well as chronic inflammatory metabolic disorders. Involvement of inflammatory response and oxidative stress is currently suggested as a mechanism underlying development of diabetes and its complications. Objective. To evaluate the clinical utility of MDA, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), LDL-C/HDL-C, and TG/HDL-C ratio as noninvasive laboratory markers for prediction of T2DM vascular complications. Method. 63 Saudi T2DM patients and 16 age and sex matched controls were included. Serum MDA and MIF were assayed by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and ELISA, respectively. TG/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios were calculated. Results. Uncontrolled DM patients had significantly higher levels of MDA, MIF, TG/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios when compared with controlled DM patients and control group (). MDA had 100% sensitivity and 88% specificity. MIF showed 97% sensitivity and 100% specificity and LDL-C/HDL-C had 97% sensitivity and 95% specificity. Meanwhile, TG/HDL-C had the lowest sensitivity and specificity in identifying diabetic patients who would suffer from vascular complications. Conclusion. MDA, MIF, and LDL-C/HDL-C could be new predictors of metabolic disturbance which promote vascular complications in T2DM.