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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 6757154, 12 pages
Review Article

Thyroid Hormones, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation

1Operative Unit of Endocrinology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, 00168 Rome, Italy
2Institute of Biochemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, 00168 Rome, Italy
3Institute of Pharmacology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, 00168 Rome, Italy

Received 31 December 2015; Revised 14 February 2016; Accepted 15 February 2016

Academic Editor: Joilson O. Martins

Copyright © 2016 Antonio Mancini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) are closely related processes, as well exemplified in obesity and cardiovascular diseases. OS is also related to hormonal derangement in a reciprocal way. Among the various hormonal influences that operate on the antioxidant balance, thyroid hormones play particularly important roles, since both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism have been shown to be associated with OS in animals and humans. In this context, the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) that typically manifests as reduced conversion of thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3) in different acute and chronic systemic conditions is still a debated topic. The pathophysiological mechanisms of this syndrome are reviewed, together with the roles of deiodinases, the enzymes responsible for the conversion of T4 to T3, in both physiological and pathological situations. The presence of OS indexes in NTIS supports the hypothesis that it represents a condition of hypothyroidism at the tissue level and not only an adaptive mechanism to diseases.