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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2016, Article ID 7950374, 13 pages
Research Article

Elevated Admission Base Deficit Is Associated with a Complex Dynamic Network of Systemic Inflammation Which Drives Clinical Trajectories in Blunt Trauma Patients

1Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
2Center for Inflammation and Regenerative Modeling, McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15219, USA
3Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA

Received 16 August 2016; Accepted 10 October 2016

Academic Editor: Vera L. Petricevich

Copyright © 2016 Othman Abdul-Malak et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We hypothesized that elevated base deficit (BD) ≥ 4 mEq/L upon admission could be associated with an altered inflammatory response, which in turn may impact differential clinical trajectories. Using clinical and biobank data from 472 blunt trauma survivors, 154 patients were identified after excluding patients who received prehospital IV fluids or had alcohol intoxication. From this subcohort, 84 patients had a BD ≥ 4 mEq/L and 70 patients with BD < 4 mEq/L. Three samples within the first 24 h were obtained from all patients and then daily up to day 7 after injury. Twenty-two cytokines and chemokines were assayed using Luminex™ and were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and dynamic network analysis (DyNA). Multiple mediators of the innate and lymphoid immune responses in the BD ≥ 4 group were elevated differentially upon admission and up to 16 h after injury. DyNA revealed a higher, sustained degree of interconnectivity of the inflammatory response in the BD ≥ 4 patients during the initial 16 h after injury. These results suggest that elevated admission BD is associated with differential immune/inflammatory pathways, which subsequently could predispose patients to follow a complicated clinical course.