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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 1491405, 14 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1491405
Research Article

Dyslipidemia rather than Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus or Chronic Periodontitis Affects the Systemic Expression of Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Genes

1Department of Morphology, School of Dentistry at Araraquara, São Paulo State University (UNESP), 14801-903 Araraquara, SP, Brazil
2Department of Diagnosis and Surgery, School of Dentistry at Araraquara, São Paulo State University (UNESP), 14801-903 Araraquara, SP, Brazil
3Postgraduate Program in Sciences of the University of Franca, 14404-600 Franca, SP, Brazil
4Department of Genetics, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), 14040-900 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
5Department of Biology, Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters at Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), 14040-900 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil

Correspondence should be addressed to Rafael Nepomuceno and Raquel Mantuaneli Scarel-Caminaga

Received 8 September 2016; Accepted 26 January 2017; Published 20 February 2017

Academic Editor: Anshu Agrawal

Copyright © 2017 Rafael Nepomuceno et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

A high percentage of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) patients are also affected by dyslipidemia and chronic periodontitis (CP), but no studies have determined the gene expression in patients that are simultaneously affected by all three diseases. We investigated the systemic expression of immune-related genes in T2D, dyslipidemia, and CP patients. One hundred and fifty patients were separated into five groups containing 30 individuals each: (G1) poorly controlled T2D with dyslipidemia and CP; (G2) well-controlled T2D with dyslipidemia and CP; (G3) normoglycemic individuals with dyslipidemia and CP; (G4) healthy individuals with CP; (G5) systemic and periodontally healthy individuals. Blood analyses of lipid and glycemic profiles were carried out. The expression of genes, including IL10, JAK1, STAT3, SOCS3, IP10, ICAM1, IFNA, IFNG, STAT1, and IRF1, was investigated by RT-qPCR. Patients with dyslipidemia demonstrated statistically higher expression of the IL10 and IFNA genes, while IFNG, IP10, IRF1, JAK1, and STAT3 were lower in comparison with nondyslipidemic patients. Anti-inflammatory genes, such as IL10, positively correlated with parameters of glucose, lipid, and periodontal profiles, while proinflammatory genes, such as IFNG, were negatively correlated with these parameters. We conclude that dyslipidemia appears to be the primary disease that is associated with gene expression of immune-related genes, while parameters of T2D and CP were correlated with the expression of these important immune genes.