Research Article

Altered Cytokine Expression and Barrier Properties after In Vitro Infection of Porcine Epithelial Cells with Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Probiotic Enterococcus faecium

Figure 6

Apoptosis (a) and cytotoxicity (b) of IPEC-J2 cells after treatment with bacterial strains (Ecf, ETEC, and Ecf + ETEC) or without bacteria (Con = control) as assessed by caspase-3/7 activity in luminescence assay for apoptosis and by a dead cell protease fluorescence assay for cytotoxicity [means ± SEM]. Measurements were taken after 6 h. Groups differ significantly () when marked with different letters, (e.g., a, b) in the figure. (apoptosis assay) and (cytotoxicity assay) independent experiments.