Research Article

Altered Cytokine Expression and Barrier Properties after In Vitro Infection of Porcine Epithelial Cells with Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Probiotic Enterococcus faecium

Figure 7

mRNA expression of IL-6 (a), IL-1α (c), and TNF-α (e) and cytokine release of IL-6 (b), IL-1α (d), and TNF-α (f) from IPEC-J2 cells after treatment with bacterial strains (Ecf, ETEC, and Ecf + ETEC) or without bacteria (Con = control) [means ± SEM]. Samples were taken after 4 h (mRNA) or 8 h (protein release). Groups differ significantly () when marked with different letters, (e.g., a, b) in the figure. N = number of independent experiments as indicated in the figure caption.