Cyanidin-3-O-Glucoside Modulates the In Vitro Inflammatory Crosstalk between Intestinal Epithelial and Endothelial Cells
(a) Nuclear NF-κB (p65) localization and gene expression of E-selectin (b) and VCAM-1 (c) in HUVECs. HUVECs were cocultured for 4 hours with Caco-2 cell monolayers previously pretreated for 24 hours with 20 μM C3G or with 25 μM WED for one hour and subsequently exposed to 50 ng/mL TNF-α for one hour. Cultures treated with Caco-2 cells exposed to the vehicle alone (0.1% DMSO) were used as controls (CTR). (a) HUVEC nuclear lysates were analyzed by western blot, and nuclear localization of the p65 protein was evaluated. (b-c) HUVEC E-selectin and VCAM-1 RNA were analyzed by RT-PCR and data are expressed as ; GAPDH was used as housekeeping gene. Results, deriving from three independent experiments, are reported as mean ± SD. versus CTR; versus TNF-α; versus C3G.
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