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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2017, Article ID 3795142, 11 pages
Research Article

High Levels of Hemoglobin Promote Carotid Adventitial Vasa Vasorum Neoangiogenesis in Chronic Kidney Disease

1Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine and LTTA Centre, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy
2Vascular and Renal Translational Research Group, Institut de Recerca Biomedica de Lleida (IRBLleida), Lleida, Spain
3Unitat de Detecció i Tractament de Malalties Aterotrombòtiques, Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova, Lleida, Spain
4Statistics Department, IRBLleida, Lleida, Spain
5Sistemes Renals, Lleida, Spain
6Department of Nephrology, Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova, Lleida, Spain
7Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, CIBER of Diabetes and Associated Metabolic Diseases, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Spain

Correspondence should be addressed to Maria Vittoria Arcidiacono; moc.liamtoh@ikcivicra and Mercè Borràs; tac.tacneg@sci.adiell.sarrobmm

Received 4 August 2016; Revised 30 October 2016; Accepted 14 November 2016; Published 4 January 2017

Academic Editor: Mauro Vaccarezza

Copyright © 2017 Maria Vittoria Arcidiacono et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, characterized by traditional and nontraditional risk factors, are prone to develop atheromatosis and thus cardiovascular events and mortality. The angiogenesis of the adventitial vasa vasorum (aVV) surrounding the carotid has been described as the atheromatosis initiator. Therefore, the aim of the study was to (1) evaluate if the carotid aVV in CKD patients increases in comparison to its physiological value of healthy patients; (2) explore which traditional or nontraditional risk factor including inflammation, bone and mineral metabolism, and anemia could be related to the aVV angiogenesis. CKD patients without previous cardiovascular events (44, stages 3-4; 37, stage 5D) and 65 healthy subjects were compared. The carotid aVV and the intima-media thickness (cIMT) were evaluated by ultrasound. CKD patients at stages 3-4 showed higher aVV of the right carotid artery even after adjusting for age. Importantly, a multiple linear regression model showed hemoglobin levels > 12.5 g/dL as the factor for an estimated higher aVV of the right carotid artery. In conclusion, the association of hemoglobin with higher aVV could suggest the role of high hemoglobin in the higher incidence of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in CKD patients.