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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2017, Article ID 3835851, 9 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/3835851
Research Article

Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities in Extracts from Minke Whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) Blubber

1Norwegian College of Fishery Science, Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics, UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromsø, Norway
2Nofima, Muninbakken 9-13, Pb 6122, 9291 Tromsø, Norway
3Faculty of Health Sciences, IMB, K.G. Jebsen TREC, UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromsø, Norway

Correspondence should be addressed to Mari Johannessen Walquist; on.tiu@tsiuqlaw.iram

Received 19 May 2017; Revised 28 August 2017; Accepted 17 September 2017; Published 8 October 2017

Academic Editor: Anshu Agrawal

Copyright © 2017 Mari Johannessen Walquist et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Intake of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-n3-PUFA) is commonly recognized to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD). In previous studies, cold-pressed whale oil (CWO) and cod liver oil (CLO) were given as a dietary supplement to healthy volunteers. Even though CWO contains less than half the amount of LC-n3-PUFA of CLO, CWO supplement resulted in beneficial effects on anti-inflammatory and CVD risk markers compared to CLO. In the present study, we prepared virtually lipid-free extracts from CWO and CLO and evaluated the antioxidative capacity (AOC) and anti-inflammatory effects. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays were used to test the AOC, and the results indicated high levels of antioxidants present in all extracts. The anti-inflammatory effects of the extracts were tested with lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) treated THP-1 cells, measuring its ability to reduce cytokine and chemokine secretion. Several CWO extracts displayed anti-inflammatory activity, and a butyl alcohol extract of CWO most effectively reduced TNF-α (50%, ) and MCP-1 (85%, ) secretion. This extract maintained a stable effect of reducing MCP-1 secretion (60%, ) even after long-term storage. In conclusion, CWO has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities that may act in addition to its well-known LC-n3-PUFA effects.