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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2017, Article ID 4308684, 13 pages
Research Article

Mold Alkaloid Cytochalasin D Modifies the Morphology and Secretion of fMLP-, LPS-, or PMA-Stimulated Neutrophils upon Adhesion to Fibronectin

1A. N. Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119234, Russia
2Physical Department, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119234, Russia

Correspondence should be addressed to Svetlana I. Galkina; us.usm.eebeneg@aniklag

Received 18 January 2017; Revised 11 April 2017; Accepted 27 April 2017; Published 27 June 2017

Academic Editor: Magdalena Klink

Copyright © 2017 Svetlana I. Galkina et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Neutrophils play an essential role in innate immunity due to their ability to migrate into infected tissues and kill microbes with bactericides located in their secretory granules. Neutrophil transmigration and degranulation are tightly regulated by actin cytoskeleton. Invading pathogens produce alkaloids that cause the depolymerization of actin, such as the mold alkaloid cytochalasin D. We studied the effect of cytochalasin D on the morphology and secretion of fMLP-, LPS-, or PMA-stimulated human neutrophils upon adhesion to fibronectin. Electron microscopy showed that the morphology of the neutrophils adherent to fibronectin in the presence of various stimuli differed. But in the presence of cytochalasin D, all stimulated neutrophils exhibited a uniform nonspread shape and developed thread-like membrane tubulovesicular extensions (cytonemes) measuring 200 nm in diameter. Simultaneous detection of neutrophil secretory products by mass spectrometry showed that all tested stimuli caused the secretion of MMP-9, a key enzyme in the neutrophil migration. Cytochalasin D impaired the MMP-9 secretion but initiated the release of cathepsin G and other granular bactericides, proinflammatory agents. The release of bactericides apparently occurs through the formation, shedding, and lysis of cytonemes. The production of alkaloids which modify neutrophil responses to stimulation via actin depolymerization may be part of the strategy of pathogen invasion.