Proinflammatory mediator levels peak at 2 hours post LPS challenge. Male C57BL/6J mice (8–10 weeks old) were administered i.p. with 1 mg/kg LPS and the levels of proinflammatory mediators in the serum was measured up to 8 hours post challenge. The levels of TNF-α (a), IL-6 (b), CCL2 (c), CXCL1 (d), CXCL2 (e), and CXCL5 (f) were measured in the serum by ELISA. Data are from one experiment with 5-6 mice per time point. Mean + SEM are represented in all bar graphs. ND: not detected.