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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 5095293, 17 pages
Review Article

Skin Immune Landscape: Inside and Outside the Organism

1Centre de Biophysique Moléculaire, CNRS UPR4301, Orléans, France
2Remedials Laboratoire, 91 rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré, 75008 Paris, France
3Collégium Sciences et Techniques, Université d’Orléans, Orléans, France

Correspondence should be addressed to Chantal Pichon

Received 5 May 2017; Revised 4 August 2017; Accepted 10 August 2017; Published 18 October 2017

Academic Editor: Danilo Pagliari

Copyright © 2017 Florence Abdallah et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The skin is an essential organ to the human body protecting it from external aggressions and pathogens. Over the years, the skin was proven to have a crucial immunological role, not only being a passive protective barrier but a network of effector cells and molecular mediators that constitute a highly sophisticated compound known as the “skin immune system” (SIS). Studies of skin immune sentinels provided essential insights of a complex and dynamic immunity, which was achieved through interaction between the external and internal cutaneous compartments. In fact, the skin surface is cohabited by microorganisms recognized as skin microbiota that live in complete harmony with the immune sentinels and contribute to the epithelial barrier reinforcement. However, under stress, the symbiotic relationship changes into a dysbiotic one resulting in skin disorders. Hence, the skin microbiota may have either positive or negative influence on the immune system. This review aims at providing basic background information on the cutaneous immune system from major cellular and molecular players and the impact of its microbiota on the well-coordinated immune responses in host defense.