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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2017, Article ID 5309081, 9 pages
Research Article

Periductal Mastitis: An Inflammatory Disease Related to Bacterial Infection and Consequent Immune Responses?

1Department of Breast Surgery, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250033, China
2School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250012, China
3Department of Breast Surgery, The Third People’s Hospital of Chengdu, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Liang Li; moc.anis@40027791gnailil and Zhigang Yu; nc.moc.liamdem@gzy

Received 26 August 2016; Revised 20 November 2016; Accepted 6 December 2016; Published 15 January 2017

Academic Editor: Yona Keisari

Copyright © 2017 Lu Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Periductal mastitis (PDM) is a prolonged inflammatory disease, but the cause of PDM is poorly understood. In the present case control study, 87 PDM and 87 healthy controls were enrolled and the results were evaluated to identify the significant risk factors for PDM. To investigate the roles of bacterial infection and critical cytokines expression, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and bacterial culturing were conducted. We also measured the levels of interferon-γ, interleukin-12A, and interleukin-17A by semiquantitative immunohistochemistry method. In a multivariable logistic regression model, we identified overweight/obesity and late onset of menarche as independent risk factors for PDM. In contrast, age of first birth >27 years had a protective effect. With 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we confirmed bacterial infections were found in all PDM patients, but none of the control patients was positive on the gene expression of 16S rRNA. Our results also demonstrated significant increases of the IFN-γ and IL-12A expression in PDM, but there was no difference in IL-17A expression in these two groups. Taken together, this study suggests that reproductive factors and overweight/obesity are possible predisposing risk factors for PDM. Bacterial infection and the increased expression of some proinflammatory cytokines are associated with the pathogenesis of this disease.