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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2017, Article ID 6361479, 14 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/6361479
Review Article

Anti-N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: A Severe, Potentially Reversible Autoimmune Encephalitis

1Department of Neurology and Neuroscience Center, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China
2Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute, 141 86 Stockholm, Sweden
3Department of Neurosurgery, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Xu Wang; moc.361@uu.ynnus

Received 19 February 2017; Accepted 4 April 2017; Published 18 June 2017

Academic Editor: Yona Keisari

Copyright © 2017 Cai-yun Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is potentially lethal, but it is also a treatable autoimmune disorder characterized by prominent psychiatric and neurologic symptoms. It is often accompanied with teratoma or other neoplasm, especially in female patients. Anti-NMDAR antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum are characteristic features of the disease, thereby suggesting a pathogenic role in the disease. Here, we summarize recent studies that have clearly documented that both clinical manifestations and the antibodies may contribute to early diagnosis and multidisciplinary care. The clinical course of the disorder is reversible and the relapse could occur in some patients. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis coexisting with demyelinating disorders makes the diagnosis more complex; thus, clinicians should be aware of the overlapping diseases.