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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2017, Article ID 9474896, 9 pages
Research Article

High Fat Diet Alters Gut Microbiota and the Expression of Paneth Cell-Antimicrobial Peptides Preceding Changes of Circulating Inflammatory Cytokines

1School of Pharmacy and Biological Engineering, Chengdu University, Sichuan, China
2School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA
3Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA
4Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Grand Forks, ND, USA
5Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Xiulan Guo; nc.ude.udc@naluixoug and Zhenhua Liu; ude.ssamu.noitirtun@uilz

Received 6 October 2016; Revised 12 January 2017; Accepted 30 January 2017; Published 21 February 2017

Academic Editor: Vinod K. Mishra

Copyright © 2017 Xiulan Guo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Obesity is an established risk factor for many diseases including intestinal cancer. One of the responsible mechanisms is the chronic inflammation driven by obesity. However, it remains to be defined whether diet-induced obesity exacerbates the intestinal inflammatory status by cytokines produced in adipose tissue or the high fat diet first alters the gut microbiota and then drives intestinal inflammation. To address this question, we fed C57BL/6 mice with a high fat diet (HF, 60%) and sacrificed them sequentially after 8, 12, and 16 weeks, and then compositions of gut microbiota and expressions of antimicrobial peptides were determined. The compositions of gut microbiota were altered at 8 wk HF feeding, followed with reduced Paneth antimicrobial peptides lysozyme and Reg IIIγ after 12 and 16 wk HF feeding (), whereas elevations of circulating inflammatory cytokines IFNγ and TNF-α were observed until feeding a HF diet for 16 weeks (). These results indicated that high fat diet may stimulate intestinal inflammation via altering gut microbiota, and it occurs prior to the potential influence by circulating inflammatory cytokines. These findings emphasized the importance of microbiota, in addition to adipose tissue per se, in driving intestinal inflammation, which may thereafter promote intestinal tumorigenesis.