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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2018, Article ID 1942193, 10 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/1942193
Research Article

A Sustained Reduction in Serum Cholinesterase Enzyme Activity Predicts Patient Outcome following Sepsis

1Department of Anesthesiology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany
2Clinic for Anesthesiology, Intensive Care, Emergency Medicine I and Pain Therapy, Westpfalz Hospital, Kaiserslautern, Germany

Correspondence should be addressed to Aleksandar R. Zivkovic; ed.grebledieh-inu.dem@civokviz.radnaskela

Received 25 January 2018; Accepted 19 March 2018; Published 29 April 2018

Academic Editor: Danilo Vojvodic

Copyright © 2018 Aleksandar R. Zivkovic et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Early sepsis identification is of paramount importance for an effective therapy and the patient outcome; however, a suitable prognostic biomarker is lacking. Anti-inflammatory nonneuronal cholinergic signaling modulates the magnitude of an immune response. Serum cholinesterase (BChE), an enzyme that hydrolyzes acetylcholine, plays an important role during inflammatory response and serves as an accurate index of cholinergic activity. BChE activity was measured in septic patients using a point-of-care system, and levels of conventional inflammatory markers and the disease severity scores were obtained. We observed a strong, sustained reduction in BChE activity in patients who died within a 90-day observation period, as compared to survivors. Reduced BChE activity when measured at the ICU admission effectively differentiated between the 90-day survivor and the nonsurvivor patient groups. We estimated a critical BChE level of 1.661 kU/L (CI 0.5–0.8, 94% sensitivity, 48% specificity, AUC 0.7) to best predict patient outcome providing a benchmark criterion for early detection of potentially fatal sepsis measured at the admission. This finding suggests that the BChE activity, used in combination with the laboratory tests, clinical examination, and the disease severity scoring, could serve to identify high-risk patients at the ICU admission, the most critical time point in the sepsis treatment.