Table 2: Effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA).

Fatty acidConditionStudy modelTreatment timeDose/concentrationMolecules associatedEffect in tissue repairReference

CLAWound healingHealthy mice2 weeks0.5 or 1% of CLA (diet)Increased CuZnSOD, and MnSOD and reduced pIkBα, COX-2, HO-1, and MDAIncreased the antioxidant defences and reduced the wound area (1%)[76]
Hairless skinMice6 hours0.25 or 1 mg (topical application)Reduced NF-κB, COX-2, IKKα/β, MAPK, and AktAntitumor (1 mg)[78]
Inflammatory diseasesBovine PBMC24 hours100 μM (in vitro)Decreased TNF-αAdditional studies are needed[80]
Inflammatory diseasesBlood phagocytes isolated from dogs24 hours10 μM (in vitro)Increased TNF-αIncreased oxidative burst activity and phagocytic capacity[81]

CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD); Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD); cicloxigenase-2 (COX-2); malondialdehyde (MDA); nuclear transcription factor (NF-κB); IκB kinase (IKKα/β); mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK); protein kinase B (Akt); tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α); peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC); not analysed (NA).