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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2018, Article ID 3487591, 7 pages
Research Article

Evaluation of Regulatory Immune Response in Skin Lesions of Patients Affected by Nonulcerated or Atypical Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Honduras, Central America

1Laboratory of Pathology of Infectious Diseases, Medical School, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
2Microbiology School, National Autonomous University of Honduras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras
3University School Hospital, Tegucigalpa, Honduras

Correspondence should be addressed to Marcia Dalastra Laurenti; rb.psu@nerualdm

Received 1 November 2017; Accepted 28 January 2018; Published 21 March 2018

Academic Editor: Minggang Zhang

Copyright © 2018 Gabriela Venicia Araujo Flores et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In Honduras, Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi causes both visceral leishmaniasis (LV) and nonulcerated or atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis (NUCL). NUCL is characterized by mononuclear inflammatory infiltration of the dermis, composed mainly of lymphocytes followed by macrophages with discrete parasitism. Considering that little is known about the pathogenesis of NUCL, the aim of this study was to evaluate the regulatory response in situ in skin lesions of patients affected by NUCL. Biopsies () from human cutaneous nonulcerative lesions were collected and processed by usual histological techniques. The in situ regulatory immune response was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using antihuman CD4, FoxP3, IL-10, and TGF-β antibodies. CD4+, FoxP3+, TGF-β+, and IL-10+ cells were observed in the dermis with inflammatory infiltration in all studied cases and at higher densities compared to the normal skin controls. A positive and strong correlation was observed between CD4+ and FoxP3+ cells, and a positive and moderate correlation was observed between FoxP3+ and TGF-β+ but not with IL-10+ cells. The data suggest that T regulatory FoxP3+ cells and the regulatory cytokines, especially TGF-β, play an important role in the immunopathogenesis of NUCL, modulating a cellular immune response in the skin, avoiding tissue damage, and leading to low tissue parasitic persistence.