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Figure 4: Paclitaxel increased the expression levels of TNF-α and IL-1β. Representative gel images (a and b) and summary data (c and d) show the TNF-α (a) and IL-1β (b) protein expression levels in the hippocampus tissue from rats treated with vehicle, paclitaxel, thalidomide, and paclitaxel plus thalidomide ( rats in each group). Data in (c) and (d) are expressed as mean ± SEM. compared with the vehicle group. compared with the PTX group. PTX: paclitaxel; THD: thalidomide.