Figure 2: Proposed crosstalk between mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation in muscle wasting. Imbalanced gut microbiota contributes to host inflammation and fuels the age-associated impairment of mitochondrial quality control in myocytes. This may lead to the release of mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), such as mtDNA and ATP. The subsequent recruitment of local macrophages may maintain a persistent inflammatory milieu by alerting circulating immune cell and mounting a systemic response through the activation of mtDNA-induced inflammatory pathways. Cytokines, chemokines, nitric oxide (NO), and reactive oxygen species (ROS), released in the circulation by inflammatory cells, can induce further mitochondrial damage, thereby establishing a vicious circle and eventually contributing to muscle wasting. ETC: electron transport chain; mtDNA: mitochondrial DNA; TFAM: mitochondrial transcription factor A; PAMPs: pathogen-associated molecular patterns.