Research Article

Activation of CD137 Signaling Enhances Vascular Calcification through c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase-Dependent Disruption of Autophagic Flux

Figure 3

Preincubation with autophagy stimulator rapamycin attenuated CD137 signaling induced VSMCs calcification. (a–c) The protein and mRNA levels of BMP2 and Runx2 were analyzed by Western blot and RT-PCR, respectively. (d) Image showing extracellular ALP activity and calcium deposition in each group. (e) Von Kossa staining was applied to detect the calcification in VSMCs of each group. Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM of at least three independent experiments. refers to ; refers to .